# writing chapter 5.3

when i sat down to write kurt making the quantum kernel, i realized i had no idea how kurt was going to do this. previous to this, it’s all been a conversation about quantum physics, consciousness, and quantum computing with nathan. but now it’s time for kurt to cut the mustard. which i think means fart, but never mind. so i wrote down what i knew, filled it in with what little i already had, adn then spent the rest of my time following links about what quantum computing really is, and how far they’ve come in building a quantum computer. and it’s as if everybody building a quantum computer is doing so inside the pages of a different novel, because everybody’s idea of a quantum computer is completely different from everybody else’s idea. they had this problem in the early days of electricity, too, between edison and tesla and maybe marconi too. the marketer/asshole won the day in that case. in this case, kurt wins. hands down.

therefore, pretty much everything i did today wound up in my research document, and the stuff below is what i’m going to use to write chapter 5. most of it’s in quotes because i haven’t begun to digest it. there’s still a little more to include, mostly about cooling to achieve quantum states, but i’ll slip that in tomorrow. i’m only about halfway thru the chapter. still to come is kurt and the group discussing things, developing the quantum tablet, and taking nathan home to see what the family’s up to.

***

nothing in here about making a computer, what am i going to describe?

unlike all these guys in their funded labs, kurt is building a quantum computer in his van. he’s got contacts all over the place, and he gets samples of new materials and hands-on gawking at prototypes in fancy funded labs, and sometimes gets hold of an instrument or device that comes in handy. he’s got a field lab that a fancy funded physicist would snigger at. mainly, tho, quantum engineers would jump up and down to see kurt’s lab. like when you take the chef of this big commercal kitchen thru the tiny kitchen (mess?) of a yacht. oooh how cute, i never thought to put that there, there’s not an inch of wasted space, is there? not to describe the van…

to prevent decoherence, you need to isolate the quantum computer from stronger outside forces that entangle and otherwise bleed off or interfere or overpower the computer. just this array of superposed quantum bits, isolated by cooling. the cooling is to shut down everything tht can interfere with quantum computation, that is anything that can observe it and make it all collapse, because that’s what you do when you run a calculation is you make it collapse by observingit, so to keep out observation you have to ocol the environment so nothing else moves. because near absolute zero, everything but quantum movement stops. quantum movememt conginutes even at absolute zero, or the ground state. ground because all movement ceases at absolute zero. except quantum. and why is this? because it continues to go between states even at a place where there’s no energy. why is there no mmovement at absolute zero?

decoherence is just like wavefunction collapse in some way. maybe decoherence is disappearance of the signal by absorption, maybe it’s interference by observation and thus collapse.

what do you ned to build a room temperature quantum computer? isolation, a barrier that either absorbs all energy or better yet reflects it. once yo’ve bult that you’ve got a black box and can use magic to build the kernel. which we’re oing to use anyway because we don’t know what the fuck we’re talking about here. so a perfectly reflective surface, nubbed all over like the venus of willendorf or a corn cob, shaped like a teardrop or kernel because of the special properties of these shapes. where am i goig to find information on this?

inside the containment, he builds the quantum cpu. miracle happens.

storage. does he go for a von neumann system, can they be separated, how limitless can this be? how would you expand storage inside a fixed size and rather small kernel? of course space is irrelevant as it time inside the kernel. endless storage.

connectivity. does it have a plug? how does it get thru the shell to communicate, not wifi thru the shell but from the outside of the shell, or a usb which seems silly. how does ti propagate thru the shell?

algorythms to harness computer power.

entanglement is like replication sort of, but teleportation destroys the original copy as it creates the new copy.

quantum optical fields in curved spacetime using localized operators. entangled pair of optical pulses propageted thru nonuniform gravitational fields. spin of an electron bound to single phosphorus atom and embedded in silicon chip. manipulate data on the spin and produce qubit, silicon quantum computer based on single atoms. two stages operation quantum bit, read, write spin state. microwaves to control electron bound to single phosphorus atom implanted next to specially designed silicon transistor. technology fundamentally same equipment as in trillion dollar electronics industry.

“Room temperature is approximately 300 kelvin,” Sullivan said. “Liquid hydrogen pumped into a rocket at the Kennedy Space Center is at 20 kelvin.” Physicists need to cool things down to 1 millikelvin, one thousandth of a kelvin above absolute zero – that’s -459.67 degrees Fahrenheit – to bring matter into a state where its quantum properties can be explored.

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Los Alamos. Microkelvin Laboratory at UF for that,” explained Zapf. The lab is located in the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory High B/T Facility and is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

Some commonly used techniques/ideas in quantum algorithms include phase kick-back, phase estimation, the quantum Fourier transform, quantum walks, amplitude amplification and topological quantum field theory.

protect quantum information from errors due to decoherence and other quantum noise. Quantum error correction is essential if one is to achieve fault-tolerant quantum computation that can deal not only with noise on stored quantum information, but also with faulty quantum gates, faulty quantum preparation, and faulty measurements

“Copying quantum information is not possible due to the no-cloning theorem. This theorem seems to present an obstacle to formulating a theory of quantum error correction. But it is possible to *spread* the information of one qubit onto a highly-entangled state of several (*physical*) qubits. Peter Shor first discovered this method of formulating a *quantum error correcting code* by storing the information of one qubit onto a highly-entangled state of nine qubits. A quantum error correcting code protects quantum information against errors of a limited form.”

“syndrome measurement. Since noise is arbitrary, how can the effect of noise be one of only few distinct possibilities? In most codes, the effect is either a bit flip, or a sign (of the phase) flip, or both (corresponding to the Pauli matrices *X*, *Z*, and *Y*). The reason is that the measurement of the syndrome has the projective effect of a quantum measurement. So even if the error due to the noise was arbitrary, it can be expressed as a superposition of basis operations—the *error basis* (which is here given by the Pauli matrices and the identity). The syndrome measurement “forces” the qubit to “decide” for a certain specific “Pauli error” to “have happened”, and the syndrome tells us which, so that we can let the same Pauli operator act again on the corrupted qubit to revert the effect of the error.”

“Efforts are underway to develop functional programming languages for quantum computing. Examples include Selinger’s QPL,[1] and the Haskell-like language QML by Altenkirch and Grattage.[2][3] Higher-order quantum programming languages, based on lambda calculus, “

“A **topological quantum computer** is a theoretical quantum computer that employs two-dimensional quasiparticles called anyons, whose world lines cross over one another to form braids in a three-dimensional spacetime (i.e., one temporal plus two spatial dimensions). These braids form the logic gates that make up the computer. The advantage of a quantum computer based on quantum braids over using trapped quantum particles is that the former is much more stable. The smallest perturbations can cause a quantum particle to decohere and introduce errors in the computation, but such small perturbations do not change the topological properties of the braids. While the elements of a topological quantum computer originate in a purely mathematical realm, experiments in 2002 by Michael H. Freedman along with Zhenghan Wang, both with Microsoft, and Michael Larsen of Indiana University indicate these elements can be created in the real world using semiconductors made of gallium arsenide near absolute zero and subjected to strong magnetic fields.”

“**Superconducting quantum computing** is a promising implementation of quantum information that involves nanofabricated superconducting electrodes coupled through Josephson junctions. As in a superconducting electrode, the phase and the charge are conjugate variables, there exists three families of superconducting qubits, depending if the charge, the phase or neither of the two are good quantum numbers. This refers respectively to charge qubits, flux qubits, and hybrid qubits.”

“These circuits need to be operated at low temperatures so that firstly superconductivity is realized, and secondly thermal fluctuations do not cause transitions between energy levels. The simplest non-dissipative quantum circuit consists simply of an inductor and capacitor , with the metallic wires connecting them being superconducting. Here the flux through the inductor and the charge in the capacitor are canonically conjugate variables which obey the commutation relation”

“best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor’s algorithm or the simulation of quantum many-body systems. There exist quantum algorithms, such as Simon’s algorithm, “

“the computational basis of 500 qubits, for example, would already be too large to be represented on a classical computer because it would require 2^{500} complex values to be stored.[7] (For comparison, a terabyte of digital information stores only 2^{43} *discrete* on/off values.)”

Richard Feynman in 1982

“the reversible Toffoli gate, which, together with the NOT and XOR gates provides a universal set for classical computation.”

“topological quantum computation as a method for combating decoherence.”

“Tai-Chang Chiang, at Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, finds that quantum coherence can be maintained in mixed-material systems.[25]

Cristophe Boehme, University of Utah, demonstrates the feasibility of reading spin-data on a silicon-phosphorus quantum computer

Breakthrough in applying spin-based electronics to silicon

Quantum RAM blueprint unveiled.[47]

Model of quantum transistor developed.

Quantum Darwinism supported[81]

Successful Demonstration of Controllably Coupled Qubits.[34]

Hybrid qubit memory developed

First universal programmable quantum computer unveiled[102]

Ten billion atoms quantum entangled[120]

Quantum antenna[122]”

“repeatedly measuring the properties of a photon to gradually change it without actually allowing the photon to reach the program, to search a database without actually “running” the quantum computer”

Posted on November 12, 2012, in Dailies, fiction, Nanowrimo and tagged quantum computer, quantum computing, quantum programming. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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